COVID, Racism Are Dual Crises for Black Americans

TheCut.com: “The Little Understood Mental-Health Effects of Racial Trauma.”

TheAtlantic.com: “How Racism Kills Black Americans.”

Michigan University School of Public Health: “Surviving the Coronavirus While Black: Pandemic’s Heavy Toll on African American Mental Health.”

Patrice Harris, MD, immediate past president, American Medical Association.

American Public Health Association: “Addressing Law Enforcement Violence as a Public Health Issue.”

American Public Health Association: “Racism and Health.”

American Psychological Association: “Racial Trauma: Theory, Research, and Healing: Introduction to Special Issue.”


The Harvard Gazette: “Big Impact of Microaggressions.”

SSRN: “The Effect of President Trump’s Election on Hate Crimes.”


The New York Times: “Hate Crime Violence Hits 16-year High, FBI Reports.”

The Climate Reality Project: “The Quest for Environmental Justice and the Politics of Place and Race.”

UNC Center for Health and Equity: “Evidence Brief: Health Equity Implications of Police Violence.”

American Medical Association: “Police brutality must stop.”

African American Policy Forum: “Say Her Name Report.”


Journal of Counseling Psychology: “Experiencing racial microaggressions influences suicide ideation through perceived burdensomeness in African Americans.” 

Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Coronavirus in African Americans and Other People of Color.”


Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: “Chronic Stress exposure among young African American Children with asthma.”

CDC: “COVID 19 in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups.”


William & Mary Journal on Race, Gender, and Social Justice: “The Violent State: Black Women’s Invisible Struggle Against Police Violence.”

National Library of Medicine.

McKinsey & Company: “The Future of Work in Black America.”

National Library of Medicine: “Seemingly Harmless Racial Communications Are Not So Harmless: Racial Microaggressions Lead to Suicidal Ideation by Way of Depression Symptoms.”

CDC: “People Who Are of Higher Risk For Severe Illness.”

National Library of Medicine: “Police Brutality and Black Health: Setting the Agenda for Public Health Scholars.”

MLive: “The shooting, punching & arrests: 45 minutes of bodycam footage of altercation between deputy, Ypsilanti woman released.”

Human Impact Partners: “Stress on the Streets (SOS): Race, Policing, Health, and Increasing Trust Not Trauma.”

National Center for Biotechnology Information: “Social Correlates of the Chronic Stress of Perceived Racism Among Black Women.”

NIH.gov: “Physiological Responses to Racism and Discrimination: An Assessment of the Evidence.”

ScienceDaily: “Racism has a toxic effect.”